Sejarah animasi
William Hanna  dan Joseph Barbera
Walt Disney Studios Salah satu pelopor dunia animasi, dengan karya-karya klasik yang sudah tidak asing lagi seperti Snow White, Peter Pan, Sleeping Beauty, dll; hingga karya-karya barunya seperti Beauty and the Beast, Lion King, Pocahontas
Warner Bros Studios Termasuk pelopor juga, terkenal dengan film seri kartunnya. Wabit (Warner Bros Imaging Technology), baru mengganti namanya menjadi Warner Bros Digital (Widget :)) Pixar Toy Story, telah membuat tonggak baru untuk sejarah animasi.
film pertama yang seluruhnya menggunakan CGI (Komputer Graphics Imagery).
Filem-filem berkonsepkan penggunaan animasi berkomputer juga semakin mendapat tempat dihati pengguna dan antara yang popular ialah “The Matrix”, “Star Wars”, “First Episode”, “XMen” .
Filem animasi tempatan “Usop Sontorian”, “Keluang Man”,  “Anak-anak Sidek”, “Silat Lagenda”  

Aimasi (animation)
berasal dari perkataan Latin erti “dihidupkan” atau pun “bring to life”.
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka merujuk kepada satu perbuatan atau proses menjadikan sesuatu agar kelihatan hidup animasi bermakna satu proses menghidupkan atau memberikan gambaran bergerak kepada sesuatu yang statik agar kelihatan hidup dan dinamik.
Dimensi : ukuran 
Pal yang dipakai di indonesia = 720pixel/576pixel
VCD perbandingan = 320x240pixel
DVD =sama dengan pal


                                            12 PRINSIP  ANIMASI
  • Squash and stretch : mengkerut dan merenggang
  • Anticipation : ancang ancang 
  • Staging : penempatan
  • Straight a head action and pose to pose : aksi bergerak dgn pasti
  • follow through and over lapping action : mengikuti gerak & aksi dengan tumpangan tindih
  • Slow in and slow out : lambat dibawah makin
  • Arcs : gerak melingkar
  • Secondary action : gerak dinamis
  • Timing : gerak yang menciptakan waktu gerak yang dinamis
  • Exaggeration : melebih lebihkan
  • Solid drawing : gambar yang berkarakter kuat
  • Apepeal : kesan yang dihadirkan  

Perjalanan Animator

  • Continuing Disney Productions

Plaque at the entrance that embodies the intended spirit of Disneyland by Walt Disney: to leave reality and enter fantasy
After Walt Disney's death, Roy Disney returned from retirement to take full control of Walt Disney Productions and WED Enterprises. In October 1971, the families of Walt and Roy met in front of Cinderella Castle at the Magic Kingdom to officially open the Walt Disney World Resort.
After giving his dedication for Walt Disney World, Roy asked Lillian Disney to join him. As the orchestra played "When You Wish upon a Star", she stepped up to the podium accompanied by Mickey Mouse. He then said, "Lilly, you knew all of Walt's ideas and hopes as well as anybody; what would Walt think of it [Walt Disney World]?". "I think Walt would have approved," she replied.[105] Roy died from a cerebral hemorrhage on December 20, 1971, the day he was due to open the Disneyland Christmas parade.

1968 US postage stamp
During the second phase of the "Walt Disney World" theme park, EPCOT was translated by Disney's successors into EPCOT Center, which opened in 1982. As it currently exists, EPCOT is essentially a living world's fair, different from the actual functional city that Disney had envisioned. In 1992, Walt Disney Imagineering took the step closer to Disney's original ideas and dedicated Celebration, Florida, a town built by the Walt Disney Company adjacent to Walt Disney World, that hearkens back to the spirit of EPCOT. EPCOT was also originally intended to be devoid of Disney characters which initially limited the appeal of the park to young children. However, the company later changed this policy and Disney characters can now be found throughout the park, often dressed in costumes reflecting the different pavilions.

Disney entertainment empire

Today, Walt Disney's animation/motion picture studios and theme parks have developed into a multi-billion dollar television, motion picture, vacation destination and media corporation that carry his name. Among other assets The Walt Disney Company owns five vacation resorts, eleven theme parks, two water parks, thirty-nine hotels, eight motion picture studios, six record labels, eleven cable television networks, and one terrestrial television network. As of 2007, the company had annual revenues of over U.S. $35 billion.[106]

Disney Animation

Walt Disney was a pioneer in character animation. He was one of the first people to move away from basic cartoons with just "impossible outlandish gags" and crudely drawn characters to an art form with heartwarming stories and characters the audience can connect to on an emotional level. The personality displayed in the characters of his films and the technological advancements remain influential when animating today. He was also considered by many of his colleagues to be a master storyteller and the animation department did not fully recover from his death until the late 1980s in a period known as the Disney Renaissance. The most financially and critically successful films produced during this time include Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), The Little Mermaid (1989), Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992) and The Lion King (1994). In 1995, Walt Disney Pictures distributed Pixar's Toy Story, the first computer animated feature film. Walt Disney's nephew Roy E. Disney claimed that Walt would have loved Toy Story and that it was "his kind of movie".[107] With the rise of computer animated films a stream of financially unsuccessful Traditional hand-drawn animated features in the early years of the 2000s (decade) emerged. This led to the company's controversial decision to close the traditional animation department. The two satellite studios in Paris and Orlando were closed, and the main studio in Burbank was converted to a computer animation production facility, firing hundreds of people in the process. In 2004, Disney released what was announced as their final "traditionally animated" feature film, Home on the Range. However, since the 2006 acquisition of Pixar, and the resulting rise of John Lasseter to Chief Creative Officer, that position has changed with the largely successful 2009 film The Princess and the Frog. This marked Disney's return to traditional hand-drawn animation and the studio hired back staff who had been laid-off in the past. Today, Disney produces both traditional and computer animation.


In his later years, Disney devoted substantial time to funding The California Institute of the Arts (CalArts). Formed in 1961 through a merger of the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and the Chouinard Art Institute, which had helped in the training of the animation staff during the 1930s, when Disney died, one-fourth of his estate went to CalArts, which helped in building its campus. In his will, Disney paved the way for the creation of several charitable trusts which included one for the California Institute of the Arts and other for the Disney Foundation.[108] He also donated 38 acres (0.154 km2) of the Golden Oaks ranch in Valencia for construction of the school. CalArts moved onto the Valencia campus in 1972.
In an early admissions bulletin, Disney explained: "A hundred years ago, Wagner conceived of a perfect and all-embracing art, combining music, drama, painting, and the dance, but in his wildest imagination he had no hint what infinite possibilities were to become commonplace through the invention of recording, radio, cinema and television. There already have been geniuses combining the arts in the mass-communications media, and they have already given us powerful new art forms. The future holds bright promise for those who imaginations are trained to play on the vast orchestra of the art-in-combination. Such supermen will appear most certainly in those environments which provide contact with all the arts, but even those who devote themselves to a single phase of art will benefit from broadened horizons."[109]


    History of Animation

    Some sources claim that the true origins of animation started with cave men drawing on walls. Although there is some evidence that cave men understood how to illustrate 2 dimensional images and imply motion from one picture to another, there was no way to move these images rapidly in sequence to imply motion in the drawing.
    One of the first devices to do this was the Thaumatrope which used two still images and persistence of motion to create a very simple animation. The image on the left shows an example of a traditional Thaumatrope. Instructions on how to make one can be found at
    The Thaumatrope has also been created in other ways as seen on the right.

    The Zeotrope consists of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides. Beneath the slits, on the inner surface of the cylinder, is a band which has either individual frames from a video/film or images from a set of sequenced drawings or photographs. As the cylinder spins, the user looks through the slits at the pictures on the opposite side of the cylinder's interior. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from simply blurring together, so that the user sees a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, the equivalent of a motion picture.

    The Praxinoscope was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. Like the zoetrope, it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder. The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned. Someone looking in the mirrors would therefore see a rapid succession of images producing the illusion of motion, with a brighter and less distorted picture than the zoetrope offered.
    In 1889 Reynaud developed the Théâtre Optique, an improved version capable of projecting images on a screen from a longer roll of pictures. This allowed him to show hand-drawn animated cartoons to larger audiences, but it was soon eclipsed in popularity by the photographic film projector of the Lumière brothers.


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